Tuesday, April 16, 2024

Drg Drsya Viveka 8 Trans/Notes


The ego identifies with the reflection of consciousness, the body, and also the witness. The first is natural, the second is due to karma, and the third is born of ignorance. 


Ahaṅkārasya tādātmyaṁ cicchāyā-deha-sākṣibhiḥ, sahajaṁ karmajaṁ bhrānti-janyaṁ ca trividhaṁ kramāt.

अहंकारस्य – of the ego; तादात्म्यम् – the identification; चित्-छाया-देह-साक्षिभिः – with the reflection of Consciousness, body and the witness; सहजम् – natural; कर्मजम् – born of past action; भ्रान्तिजन्यम् – born of ignorance; च – and; त्रिविधम् – is of three kinds; क्रमात् – respectively

The identification of the ego with reflection of Consciousness, the body and the witness is of three kinds – natural, born of past actions and born of ignorance, respectively.


अहंकारस्य of the ego तादात्म्यं identification चिच्छायादेहसाक्षिभि: with the reflection of Consciousness, body, and Witness क्रमात् respectively सहजं natural कर्मजं due to past karma भ्रान्तिजन्यं च and due to ignorance त्रिविधं of three kinds (भवति is).

The identification of the ego (1) with the reflection of Consciousness, the body, and the Witness are of three kinds, namely, natural, (2) due to (past) karma, (3) and due to ignorance, (4) respectively.



The word tādātmya means identification. Thinking of ‘that’, ‘I’ become of the nature of ‘that’. This is called identification.

Sahajam tādātmyam:

The subtle body can by its very nature manifest Consciousness (verse 6). Consciousness is eternal and omnipresent, so its reflection too is potentially ever-present. The ego manifests itself under the influence of this reflection. There is a natural identification of the ego with the reflection, the instant the ego rises. For instance, whenever I stand in front of a mirror in a lighted room, my reflection comes into being. Sunlight cannot help but be reflected in a pool of water. This identification is expressed as the notion of knowership (jnātā). Knowing, however, is a characteristic of thought and not the Self.

Karmajam tādātmyam:

The present body too, is the result of actions performed in the past. The ego identifies with this body and says ‘I am a man’ or ‘I am a woman’. The identification is due to past actions. The ego is neither a man nor a woman. The body is only a mass of inert matter, yet I think that the body is alive.

Bhrānti-janyam tādātmyam:

Thus man falls into a vicious circle of birth and death (action-enjoyment-action), all because of the notion that he is finite. This notion is born due to the identification of the Witness Self with the ego. Ignorance of our true nature gives rise to this fundamental error. The Self is infinite Consciousness-Existence-Bliss. The ego is finite, inert and changing. The mutual superimposition of characteristics is due to non-apprehension of the Self. This delusion is the root cause of bondage. It has been in existence since beginningless time and shall continue to bind the individual till true Knowledge takes place.


Ignorance of the real nature of Consciousness is called here भ्रान्ति (delusion) which is without beginning and cannot be described as real or unreal. This identification of the ahaṅkāra (ego) with the Witness (साक्षी चैतन्य) is based only upon ignorance (भ्रान्ति). It can be removed only by knowing the real nature of Consciousness. The experience resulting from this identification is ‘I am’ or ‘I exist’ (अहमस्मि).


I am the sākṣī and I do not have connection with the mind but I am worried about the mind and its conditions and I say I am disturbed, I am happy, I am jealous, etc. In all such expressions I am connecting ‘I’ the sākṣī with the mind because of delusion. The whole Vedānta is about knowing that I do have no mind and that I do not have any connection with the mind. Therefore the conditions of the mind cannot make me a saṁsārī. I do not have this knowledge and so I feel connected to the mind and jumping to the tunes of the mind and throughout life I am trying to satisfy the unsatisfiable mind. It is all because I have bonded with the mind out of sheer delusion.


Sahajam means the ahaṅkāra is a conscious entity naturally. What is the problem in this? There is no problem. Some people want to remove ego. What for? If you want to remove ego, ego becomes real. If it’s real you can’t remove it. If it is not real, you need not remove it.

The second one Is tādātmyaṁ between ahaṅkāra and deha. Both have become almost one and the same. The body is conscious due to ahaṅkāra identifying with the body. This is also not a problem. This is karmajam. This association is born of karma.

Third is tādātmyaṁ of ahaṅkāra with sākṣī. The conclusion that I am as good as the body is because of this tādātmyam. The sākṣī is not recognised at all because of tādātmyaṁ. Really speaking sākṣī is always sākṣī.


Translators / Commentators Legend

A: Aumdada

D: Dayananda

N: Nikhilananda

P: Paramarthananda

S: Sandeepany

T: Tejomayananda

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