Monday, May 6, 2024

Drg Drsya Viveka 21 Trans/Notes

DDV 21

In space, air, fire, water, and earth; in deities, animals, men, and so on; existence, consciousness, and bliss are the same. Only the names and forms differ.


Khavāyvagnijalorvīșu deva-tiryan- narādișu, abhinnās-saccidānandāḥ bhidyate rūpanāmanī.

ख-वायु-अग्नि-जल-उर्दीषु in space, air, fire, water and earth; देव-तिर्यङ्-नर- in deities, animals, man, and so on; अभिन्नाः are the same; सत्-चित्-आनन्दाः Consciousness-Bliss; भिद्यते Existence- differs ; रूपनामनी – the name and form

Existence-Consciousness-Bliss is the same in space, air, fire, water and earth, and in deities, animals, man, and so on. Only their names and forms differ.


खवाय्वग्निजलोर्गीषु in the ākāśa (space), air, fire, water and earth देवतिर्यङ्नरादिषु in gods, animals, and men सच्चिदानन्दाः (the attributes of) Existence, Consciousness, and Bliss अभिन्नाः common features रूपनामनी forms and names भिद्येते differ.

The attributes of Existence, Con- sciousness, and Bliss are equally (1) present in the ākāśa (space), air, fire, water, and earth as well as in gods, animals, and men, etc. Names and forms make (2) one differ from the other.


In space, air, fire, water and earth;

in Deities, animals, man and all others;

Existence, Knowledge and Bliss is no different;

Only their names and forms differ.



Space is defined as that which accommodates (avakāśaṁ dadāti iti ākāśaḥ). The special quality of space is sound. Similarly, the special qualities of air, fire, water and earth are feel, form (and colour), taste and smell respectively. They differ from one another in their names and forms (form here does not mean only the physical forms but includes the qualities perceived by the senses). The names and forms are the product of māyā in fact, name and form is māyā. But Existence- Consciousness-Bliss is common to all.


We distinguish one object from another only by their names and forms. Names and forms are character- istics of the individual and hence rela- tive. Even after the negation of names and forms, there exists the common substratum whose nature is Existence- Consciousness-Bliss (Absolute).


Sat-cit-ānanda is equally present in all the insentient things of the world and also the sentient beings. In the verse, the insentient things are referred to by the five elements and the sentient beings are referred to by three grades of beings, the superior celestials, the inferior animals and the intermediate human beings. But nāma-rūpamake all the things and beings appear different. Sat-cit-ānanda is satyaṃ and nāma-rūpa is mithyā. One should differentiate between satyaṃ and mithyā and not mix them up.


Oak, Satcitananda, Oakananda

The world is made of five ingredients, of which these are the foundational three: that which exists, that which is knowable, and that which is lovable, either in Its presence or its absence.

These first three correspond to Existence, Consciousness, Bliss, which are present in all deities, creatures, and humans. The other two are name and form, namarupa, which differs with every entity.

Rather than stopping at visible names and forms, see Satcitananda as the essence of all. Consider an oak tree not as Oak but as Oak-satcitananda or Oakananda for short. What’s good for the monk is good for the mighty oak.


Translators / Commentators Legend

A: Aumdada

D: Dayananda

N: Nikhilananda

P: Paramarthananda

S: Sandeepany

T: Tejomayananda

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